Classic Canopy Citations

With the help of a diverse body of scientists, ICAN has compiled a resource list of classic citations from the primary literature relating to forest canopy research.Download the complete list in PDF here.

Ecosystem Processes

Anthoni, P. M., B. E. Law, and M. H. Unsworth. 1999. Carbon and water vapor exchange of an open-canopied ponderosa pine ecosystem. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 95:151-168.
Baldocchi, D. D. 1988. A multi-layer model for estimating sulfur dioxide deposition to a deciduous oak forest canopy. Atmospheric Environment 22:869-884.
Botkin, D. B., L. G. Simpson, and R.A. Nisbet. 1993. Biomass and carbon storage of the North American deciduous forest. Biogeochemistry 20:1-17.
Buchmann, N., W.-Y. Kao, and J. R. Ehleringer. 1996. Carbon dioxide concentrations within forest canopies – variation with time, stand structure, and vegetation type. Global Change Biology 2:421-432.
Culf, A. D., G. Fisch, Y. Malhi, and C.A. Nobre. 1997. The influence of the atmospheric boundary layer on carbon dioxide concentrations over a tropical forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 85:149-158.
Harrington, R. A., J. H. Fownes, F.C. Meinzer and P. G. Scowcroft. 1995. Forest growth along a rainfall gradient in Hawaii: Acacia koa stand structure, productivity, foliar nutrients, and water- and nutrient-use efficiencies. Oecologia 102:277-284.
Kappelle, M., and M. E. Leal. 1996. Changes in leaf morphology and foliar nutrient status along a successional gradient in a Costa Rican upper montane Quercusforest. Biotropica 28:331-344.
Lowman, M. D., and M. W. Moffett 1993. The ecology of tropical rain forest canopies. Trees 8:104-107.
Niinemets, Ü. 1997. Distribution patterns of foliar carbon and nitrogen as affected by tree dimensions and relative light conditions in the canopy of Picea abies. Trees 11:144-154.
Richardson, B. A., M. J. Richardson, F.N. Scatena, and W.H. McDowell. 2000. Effects of nutrient availability and other elevational changes on bromeliad populations and their invertebrate communities in a humid tropical forest in Puerto Rico. Journal of Tropical Ecology 16:167-188.
Ryan, M. G., D. Binkley, and J.H. Fownes. 1997. Age-related decline in forest productivity: pattern and process. Advances in Ecological Research 27:213-262.
Sellers, P. J., R. E. Dickinson, D.A. Randall, A.K. Betts, F.G. Hall, J.A. Berry, J.G. Collatz, A.S. Denning, H.A. Mooney, C.A. Nobre, N. Sato, C.B. Field, and A. Henderson-Sellers. 1997. Modeling the exchanges of energy, water, and carbon between continents and the atmosphere. Science 275:502-509.
Sumida, A. 1993. Growth of tree species in a broadleaved secondary forest as related to the light environments of crowns. Japanese Forestry Society. Journal75:278-286.

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Forest-Atmosphere Interactions

Baldocchi, D. D., and T. P. Meyers. 1998. On using eco-physiological, micrometeorological and biogeochemical theory to evaluate carbon dioxide, water vapor and trace gas fluxes over vegetation: a perspective. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 90:1-25.
Boyce, R. L., A. J. Friedland, C. P. Chamberlain, and S. R. Poulson. 1996. Direct canopy nitrogen uptake from 15N- labeled wet deposition by mature red spruce. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26:539-1547.
Brooks, J. R., L. B. Flanagan, G. T. Varney, and J. R. Ehleringer. 1997. Vertical gradients in photosynthetic gas exchange characteristics and refixation of respired CO 2 within boreal forest canopies. Tree Physiology 17:1-12.
Cavelier, J., D. Solis, and M. A. Jaramillo. 1996. Fog interception in montane forests across the central Cordillera of Panamá. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12:357-369.
Condit, R. 1998. Ecological implications of changes in drought patterns: shifts in forest composition in Panama. Climatic Change 39:413-427.
Constable, J. V. H., M. E. Litvak, J. P. Greenberg, and R. K. Monson. 1999. Monoterpene emission from coniferous trees in response to elevated CO 2 concentration and climate warming. Global Change Biology 5:255-267.
Dambrine, É., B. Pollier, M. Bonneau, and N. Ignatova. 1998. Use of artificial trees to assess dry deposition in spruce stands. Atmospheric Environment 32:1817-1824.
Daudet, F.-A., X. Le Roux, H. Sinoquet, and B. Adam. 1999. Wind speed and leaf boundary layer conductance variation within tree crown: consequences on leaf-to-atmosphere coupling and tree functions. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 97:171-185.
Grulke, N. E., P. R. Miller, and D. Scioli. 1996. Response of giant sequoia canopy foliage to elevated concentrations of atmospheric ozone. Tree Physiology16:575-581.
Hollinger, D. Y., F. M. Keliher, J. N. Byers, J. E. Hunt, T. M. McSeveny, and P. L. Weir. 1994. Carbon dioxide exchange between an undisturbed old-growth temperate forest and the atmosphere. Ecology 75:134-150.
Kellman, M., J. Hudson, and K. Sanmugadas. 1982. Temporal variability in atmospheric nutrient influx to a tropical ecosystem. Biotropica 14:1-9.
Lindberg, S. E., G. M. Lovett, D. D. Richter, and D. W. Johnson. 1986. Atmospheric deposition and canopy interactions of major ions in a forest. Science 231:141-145.
Potter, C. S., H. L. Ragsdale and W. T. Swank. 1991. Atmospheric deposition and foliar leaching in a regenerating southern Appalachian forest canopy. Journal of Ecology 79:97-115.
Shuttleworth, W. J. 1977. The exchange of wind-driven fog and mist between vegetation and the atmosphere. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 12:463-489.
Tenhunen, J. D., R. Valentini, B. Köstner, R. Zimmerman, and A. Granier. 1998. Variation in forest gas exchange at landscape to continental scales. Annales des Sciences Forestières 55:1-11.
Wesely, M. L. and B. B. Hicks 2000. A review of the current status of knowledge on dry deposition. Atmospheric Environment 34:2261-2282.
Yague, C. and J. L. Cano 1993. Eddy transfer processes in the atmospheric boundary layer. Atmospheric Environment 28:1275-1289.


Ahmad-Shah, A., and J. O. Rieley. 1989. Influence of tree canopies on the quantity of water and amount of chemical elements reaching the peat surface of a basin mire in the midlands of England. Journal of Ecology 77:357-370.
Anhuf, D., T. Motzer, R. Rollenbeck, B. Schröder, and J. Szarzynski. 1999. Water budget of the Suromoni Crane Site (Venezuela). Selbyana 20:179-185.
Calder, I. R., I. R. Wright, and D. Murdiyarso. 1986. A study of evaporation from tropical rain forest – West Java. Journal of Hydrology 89:13-31.
Dawson, T. E. 1999. Fog in the California Redwood forest: ecosystem inputs and use by plants. Oecologia 117:476-485.
Hancock, N. H., and J. M. Crowther. 1979. A technique for the direct measurement of water storage on a forest canopy. Journal of Hydrology 41:105-122.
Helvey, J. D., and J. H. Patric. 1965. Canopy and litter interception of rainfall by hardwoods of eastern United States. Water Resources Research 1:193-206.
Herwitz, S. R. 1985. Interception storage capacities of tropical rainforest canopy trees. Journal of Hydrology 77:237-252.
Hutchings, N. J., R. Milne, and J. M. Crowther. 1988. Canopy storage capacity and its vertical distribution in a Sitka spruce canopy. Journal of Hydrology 104:161-171.
Massman, W. J. 1980. Water storage on forest foliage: a general model. Water Resources Research 16:210-216.
Meinzer, F. C., J. L. Andrade, G. Goldstein, N. M. Holbrook, J. Cavelier, and S. J. Wright. 1999. Partitioning of soil water among canopy trees in a seasonally dry tropical forest. Oecologia 121:293-301.
Nakai, Y., T. Sakamoto, T. Terajima, K. Kitajima, and T. Shirai. 1999. Energy balance above a boreal coniferous forest: a difference in turbulent fluxes between snow-covered and snow-free canopies. Hydrological Processes 13:515-529.
Puckett, L. J. 1991. Spatial variablity and collector requirements for sampling throughfall volume and chemistry under a mixed-hardwood canopy. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21:1581-1588.
Reynolds, B. K. 1984. An assessment of the spatial variation in the chemical composition of bulk precipitation within an upland catchment. Water Resources Research 20:733-735.
Rutter, A. J., and A. J. Morton. 1977. A predictive model of rainfall interception in forests III. Sensitivity of the model to stand parameters and meteorological variables. Journal of Applied Ecology 14:567-588.
Schmidt, R. A., and C. A. Troendle. 1989. Snowfall into a forest and clearing. Journal of Hydrology 110:335-348.
Veneklaas, E. J. 1990. Nutrient fluxes in bulk precipitation and throughfall in two montane tropical rain forests, Colombia. Journal of Ecology 78:974-992.
Zotz, G., S. Patiño, and M. T. Tyree. 1997. Water relations and hydraulic architecture of woody hemiepiphytes. Journal of Experimental Botany 48:1825-1833.


Adis, J., Y. D. Lubin, and G. G. Montgomery. 1984. Arthropods from the canopy of inundated and terra firme forests near Manaus, Brazil, with critical considerations on the pyrethrum-fogging technique. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 19:223-226.
Basset, Y. 1992. Host specificity of arboreal and free-living insect herbivores in rain forests. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 47:115-133.
Basset, Y. 2001. Invertebrates in the canopy of tropical rain forests How much do we really know? Plant Ecology 153:87-107.
Cachan, P. 1964. Analyse statistique des pullulations de Scolytoidea mycétophages en forêt sempervirente de Côte d’Ivoire. Annales de la Faculté des Sciences, Université de Dakar 14:5-70.
Coley, P. D. 1980. Effects of leaf age and plant life history patterns on herbivory. Nature 284:545-546.
Compton, S. G., Ellwood, M. D. F., Davis, A. J., and Welch, K. 2000. The flight heights of chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) in a lowland Bornean rain forest: fig wasps are the high fliers. Biotropica 32:515-522.
DeVries, P. J., D. Murray, and R. Lande. 1997. Species diversity in vertical, horizontal, and temporal dimensions of a fruit-feeding butterfly community in an Ecuadorian rainforest. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 62:343-364.
Erwin, T. L. 1982. Tropical forests: their richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod species. The Coleopterists Bulletin 36:74-75.
Feeny, P. P. 1970. Seasonal changes in oak leaf tannins and nutrients as a cause of spring feeding by winter moth caterpillars. Ecology 51:565-581.
Grove, S. J. 2002. The influence of forest management history on the integrity of the saproxylic beetle fauna in an Australian lowland tropical rainforest. Biological Conservation 104:149-171.
Haddow, A. J., P. S. Corbet, and J. D. Gillett. 1961. Entomological studies from a high tower in Mpanga Forest, Uganda. I. Introduction. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 113:249-256.
Heatwole, H., M. D. Lowman, and K. L. Abbott. 1999. Grazing on Australian eucalypt leaves by insects. Selbyana 20:299-323.
Hunter, M. D. 1987. Opposing effects of spring defoliation on late season oak caterpillars. Ecological Entomology 12:373-382.
Lowman, M. D. 1984. An assessment of techniques for measuring herbivory: is rainforest defoliation more intense than we thought? Biotropica 16:264-268.
Majer, J. D., and H. F. Recher. 1988. Invertebrate communities on Western Australian eucalypts – a comparison of branch clipping and chemical knockdown procedures. Australian Journal of Ecology 13:269-278.
Mattson, W. J., and N. D. Addy. 1975. Phytophagous insects as regulators of forest primary productivity. Science 190:515-522.
Moran, V. C., and T. R. E. Southwood. 1982. The guild composition of arthropod communities in trees. Journal Animal Ecology 51:289- 306.
Nadkarni, N. M., and J. T. Longino. 1990. Invertebrates in canopy and ground organic matter in a neotropical montane forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 22:286-289.
Novotny, V., Y. Bassett, S. E Miller, G. D. Weiblen, B. Bremer, L. Cized, and P. Drozd. 2002. Low host specificity of herbivorous insects in a tropical forest. Nature416:841-844.
Novotny, V., and Y. Basset. 2000. Rare species in communities of tropical insect herbivores: pondering the mystery of singletons. Oikos 89:564-572.
Ødegaard, F. 2000. The relative importance of trees versus lianas as hosts for phytophagous beetles (Coleoptera) in tropical forests. Journal of Biogeography.27:283-296.
Prinzing, A. 2001. Use of shifting microclimatic mosaics by arthropods on exposed tree trunks. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 94:210-218.
Recher, H. F., J. D. Majer, and S. Ganesh. 1996. Eucalypts, arthropods and birds: On the relationship between foliar nutrients and species richness. Forest Ecology and Management 85:177-195.
Reichle, D. E., R. A. Goldstein, R. I. Van Hook, and G. J. Dodson. 1973. Analysis of insect consumption in a forest canopy. Ecology 54:1076-1084.
Rodgers, D. J., and Kitching, R. L. 1998. Vertical stratification of rainforest collembolan (Collembola: Insecta) assemblages: description of ecological patterns and hypotheses concerning their generation. Ecography 21:392-400.
Schowalter, T. D., and Ganio. L. M. 1998. Vertical and seasonal variation in canopy arthropod communities in an old-growth conifer forest in Southwestern Washington, USA. Bulletin of Entomological Research 88:633-640.
Schowalter, T. D., W. W. Hargrove, and D. A. Crossley, Jr. 1986. Herbivory in forested ecosystems. Annual Review of Entomology 31:177-196.
Seastedt, T. R., D. A. Crossley, Jr., and W. W. Hargrove. 1983. The effects of low-level consumption by canopy arthropods on the growth and nutrient dynamics of black locust and red maple trees in the southern Appalachians. Ecology 64:1040-1048.
Southwood, T. R. E., and C. E. J. Kennedy. 1983. Trees as islands. Oikos 41: 359-37.
Stork, N. E. 1987. Arthropod faunal similarity of Bornean rain forest trees. Ecological Entomology 12:219-226.
Sutton, S. L., C. P. Ash, and A. Grundy. 1983. The vertical distribution of flying insects in the lowland rain forest of Panama, Papua New Guinea and Brunei. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 78:287-297.
Walter, D. E., and V. Behan-Pelletier. 1999. Mites in forest canopies: filling the size distribution shortfall. Annual Review Entomology 44:1-19.
Watt, A. D., N. E. Stork, C. McBeath, and G. L. Watson. 1997. Impact of forest management on insect abundance and damage in a lowland tropical forest in southern Cameroon. Journal of Applied Ecology 34:985-998.
Winchester, N. N., V. Behan-Pelletier, and R.A. Ring. 1999. Arboreal specificity, diversity and abundance of canopy-dwelling oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) Pedobiologia 43:391-400.

Light Transmission

Baars, R., and D. Kelly. 1996. Survival and growth responses of native and introduced vines in New Zealand to light availability. New Zealand Journal of Botany34:389-400.
Black, T. A., J. M. Chen, X. Lee, and R.M. Sagar. 1991. Characteristics of shortwave and longwave irradiances under a Douglas-fir forest stand. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21:1020-1028.
Brooks, J. R., T. M. Hinckley, and D.G. Sprugel. 1994. Acclimation responses of mature Abies amabilis sun foliage to shading. Oecologia 100:316-324.
Brunner, A. 1998. A light model for spatially explicit forest stand models. Forest Ecology and Management 107:19-46.
Canham, C. D. W., D. Coates, P. Bartemucci, and S. Quaglia. 1999. Measurement and modeling of spatially explicit variation in light transmission through interior cedar-hemlock forests of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29:1775-1783.
de Castro, F. 2000. Light spectral composition in a tropical forest: measurements and model. Tree Physiology 20:49-56.
Hutchison, B. A., and D. R. Matt. 1977. The distribution of solar radiation within a deciduous forest. Ecological Monographs 47:185-207.
Kinerson, R. S. 1973. Fluxes of visible and net radiation within a forest canopy. Journal of Applied Ecology 10:657-660.
Kull, O., M. Broadmeadow, B. Kruijt, and P. Meir. 1999. Light distribution and foliage structure in an oak canopy. Trees 14:55-64.
Kuuluvainen, T., and T. Pukkala. 1987. Effect of crown shape and tree distribution on the spatial distribution of shade. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 40:215-231.
Niinemets, Ü., O. Kull, and J. D. Tenhunen. 1999. Variability in leaf morphology and chemical composition as a function of canopy light environment in coexisting deciduous trees. International Journal of Plant Sciences 160:837-848.
Parker, G. G., M. M. Davis, and S. M. Chapotin. 2002. Canopy light transmittance in Doulgas-fir-western hemlock stands. Tree Physiology 22:147-157.
Wang, Y. P. 2000. A refinement of the two-leaf model for calculating canopy photosynthesis. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 101:143-150.
Wilson, J. W. 1965. Stand structure and light penetration. Journal of Applied Ecology 2:383-390.

Forest Management

Culf, A. D., G. Fisch, and M. G. Hodnett. 1995. The albedo of Amazonian forest and ranch land. Journal of Climate 8:1544-1554.
Dettki, H., and P.-A. Esseen. 1998. Epiphytic macrolichens in managed and natural forest landscapes: a comparison at two spatial scales. Ecography 21:613-624.
Humphrey, J. W., C. Hawes, A. J. Peace, R. Ferris-Kaan, and M. R. Jukes. 1999. Relationships between insect diversity and habitat characteristics in plantation forests. Forest Ecology and Management 113:11-21.
Imbeau, L., and A. Desrochers. 2002. Area sensitivity and edge avoidance: the case of the Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) in a managed forest. Forest Ecology and Management 164:249-256.
Johns, A. D. 1988. Effects of ‘selective’ timber extraction on rain forest structure and composition and some consequences for frugivores and folivores. Biotropica20:31-37.
Kellomäki, S., P. Oker-Blom, E. Valtonen, and H. Vaisanen. 1989. Structural development of Scots pine stands with varying initial density: effect of pruning on branchiness of wood. Forest Ecology and Management 27:219-233.
Maguire, D. A., J. A. Kershaw-Jr., and D. W. Hann. 1991. Predicting the effects of silvicultural regime on branch size and crown wood core in Douglas-fir. Forest Science 37:1409-1428.
Menalled, F. D., M. J. Kelty, and J. J. Ewel. 1998. Canopy development in tropical plantations: a comparison of species mixture and monocultures. Forest Ecology and Management 104:249-263.
Noon, B. R., and K. S. McKelvey. 1996. Management of the spotted owl: a case history in conservation biology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27:135-162.
Putz, F. E., G. M. Blate, K. H. Redford, R. Fimbel, and J. Robinson. 2001. Tropical forest management and conservation of biodiversity: an overview. Conservation Biology 15:7-20.
Romero, C. 1999. Reduced-impact logging effects on commercial non-vascular pendant epiphyte biomass in a tropical montane forest in Costa Rica. Forest Ecology and Management 118:117-125.
Schowalter, T. D. 1995. Canopy arthropod communities in relation to forest age and alternative harvest practices in western Oregon. Forest Ecology and Management 78:115-125.
Sillett, S. C. 1995. Branch epiphyte assemblages in the forest interior and on the clearcut edge of a 700-year-old Douglas fir canopy in western Oregon. Bryologist98:301-312.
Vidal, E., J. Johns, J. J. Gerwing, P. Barreto, and C. Uhl. 1997. Vine management for reduced-impact logging in eastern Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 98:105-114.
Webb, J. K., and R. Shine. 1997. Out on a limb: conservation implications of tree-hollow use by a threatened snake species (Hoplocephalus bungaroides: Serpentes, Elapidae). Biological Conservation 81:21-33.


Chen, J., S. C. Saunders, T. R. Crow, R. J. Naiman, K. D. Brosofske, G. D. Mroz, B. L. Brookshire, and J. F. Franklin. 1999. Microclimate in forest ecosystem and landscape ecology. BioScience 49:288-297.
Fuentes, J. D., and D. Wang. 1999. On the seasonality of isoprene emissions from a mixed temperate forest. Ecological Applications 9:1118-1131.
Grace, J. C., J. Lloyd, J. McIntyre, A. Miranda, P. Meir, H. Miranda, J. Moncrieff, J. Massheder, I. R. Wright, and J. H. C. Gash. 1995. Fluxes of carbon dioxide and water vapour over an undisturbed tropical forest in south-west Amazonia. Global Change Biology 1:1-12.
Hörmann, G., A. Branding, T. Clemen, M. Herbst, A. Hinrichs, and F. Thamm. 1996. Calculation and simulation of wind controlled canopy interception of a beech forest in northern Germany. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 79:131-148.
Lee, X., T. A. Black, G. den Hartog, H. H. Neumann, Z. Nesic, and J. Olejnik. 1996. Carbon dioxide exchange and nocturnal processes over a mixed deciduous forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 81:13-29.
Roberts, J. M., O. M. R. Cabral, G. Fisch, L. C. B. Molion, C. J. Moore, and W. J. Shuttleworth. 1993. Transpiration from an Amazonian rainforest calculated from stomatal conductance measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 65:175-196.
Watanabe, T,. and K. Mizutani. 1996. Model study on micrometeorological aspects of rainfall interception over an evergreen broad-leaved forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 80:195-214.
Weathers, K. C., G. M. Lovett, and G. E. Likens. 1995. Cloud deposition to a spruce forest edge. Atmospheric Environment 29:665-672.


Anderson, M. C., J. M. Norman, T. P. Meyers, and G. R. Diak. 1999. An analytical model for estimating canopy transpiration and carbon assimilation fluxes based on canopy light-use efficiency. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 101:265-289.
Asner, G. P., and C. A. Wessman. 1997. Scaling PAR absorption from the leaf to landscape level in spatially heterogeneous ecosystems. Ecological Modelling103:81-97.
Calder, I. R. 1977. A model of transpiration and interception loss from a spruce forest in Plynlimon, Central Wales. Journal of Hydrology 33:247-265.
Chiba, Y. 1998. Architectural analysis of relationship between biomass and basal area based on pipe model theory. Ecological Modelling 108:219-225.
de Castro, F., and N. Fetcher. 1998. Three dimensional model of the interception of light by a canopy. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 90:215-233.
Dolman, A. J. 1987. Summer and winter rainfall interception in an oak forest. Predictions with an analytical and a numerical simulation model. Journal of Hydrology90:1-9.
Grant, R. F., and I. A. Nalder. 2000. Climate change effects on net carbon exchange of a boreal aspen-hazelnut forest: estimates from the ecosystem model ecosys. Global Change Biology 6:183-200.
Kinerson-Jr., R., and L. J. Fritschen. 1971. Modelling a coniferous forest canopy. Agricultural Meteorology 8:439-445.
Kuuluvainen, T., and T. Pukkala. 1989. Simulation of within-tree and between-tree shading of direct radiation in a forest canopy: effect of crown shape and sun elevation. Ecological Modelling 49:89-100.
Leathwick, J. R., and G. M. Rogers. 1996. Modelling relationships between environment and canopy composition in secondary vegetation in central North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 20:147-161.
Lindenmayer, D. B., and H. P. Possingham. 1995. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on the viability of metapopulations of the endangered Australian species of arboreal marsupial, Leadbeater’s possum. Forest Ecology and Management 74:197-222.
Liu, S. 1997. A new model for the prediction of rainfall interception in forest canopies. Ecological Modelling 99:151-159.
Maguire, D. A., M. Moeur, and W. S. Bennett. 1993. Models for describing basal diameter and vertical distribution of primary branches in young Douglas-fir. Forest Ecology and Management 63:23-55.
Pearce, A. J., and L. K. Rowe. 1981. Rainfall interception in a multi-storied, evergreen mixed forest: estimates using Gash’s analytical model. Journal of Hydrology49:341-353.
Vose, J. M., and P. V. Bolstad. 1999. Challenges to modelling NPP in diverse eastern deciduous forests: species-level comparisons of foliar respiration responses to temperature and nitrogen. Ecological Modelling 122:165-174.
Wang, Y. P., and P. G. Jarvis. 1990. Description and validation of an array model – MAESTRO. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 51:257-280.
Williams, M. 1996. A three-dimensional model of forest development and competition. Ecological Modelling 89:73-98.

Non-Vascular Epiphytes

Barkman, J. J. 1958. Phytosociology and ecology of cryptogamic epiphytes. Van Gorcum, Assen, Germany.
Coxson, D. S. 1991. Nutrient release from epiphytic bryophytes in tropical montane rain forest (Guadeloupe). Canadian Journal of Botany 69:2122-2129.
Freiberg, E. 1998. Microclimatic parameters influencing nitrogen fixation in the phyllosphere in a Costa Rican premontane rain forest. Oecologia 117:9-18.
Gradstein, S. R., and T. Pócs. 1989. Biogeography of tropical rain forest bryophytes. Pages 311-325 in H. Lieth and M. J. A. Werge, editors. Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems 14B. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
McCune, B., R. Rosentreter, J. M. Ponzetti, and D. C. Shaw. 2000. Epiphyte habitats in an old conifer forest in Western Washington, USA. Bryologist 103:417-427.
Pócs, T. 1982. Tropical forest bryophytes. Pages 59-104 in A. J. E. Smith, editor. Bryophyte ecology. Columbia University Press, New York, New York, USA.
Rhoades, F. M. 1995. Nonvascular epiphytes in forest canopies: worldwide distribution, abundance, and ecological roles. Pages 353-408 in M. D. Lowman and N. M. Nadkarni, editors. Forest canopies. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
Sillett, S. C., B. McCune, J. E. Peck, T. R. Rambo, and A. Ruchty. 2000. Dispersal limitations of epiphytic lichens result in species dependent on old-growth forests. Ecological Applications 10:789-799.
Wolf, J. H. D. 1994. Factors controlling the distribution of vascular and non-vascular epiphytes in the northern Andes. Vegetatio 112:15-28.
Wolf, J. H. D. 1995. Non vascular epiphyte diversity patterns in the canopy of an upper montane rain forest, Central Cordillera, Colombia. Selbyana 16:185-195.

Nutrient Cycling

Attiwill, P. M. 1966. The chemical composition of rainwater in relation to cycling of nutrients in mature eucalyptus forest. Plant and Soil 24:390-406.
Baldocchi, D. D. 1988. A multi-layer model for estimating sulfur dioxide deposition to a deciduous oak forest canopy. Atmospheric Environment 22:869-884.
Bellot, J., A. Àvila, and A. Rodrigeo. 1999. Throughfall and stemflow. Ecological Studies 137:209-222.
Binkley, D., and P. Högberg. 1997. Does atmospheric deposition of nitrogen threaten Swedish forests? Forest Ecology and Management 92:119-152.
Bredemeier, M., K. Blanck, A. Dohrenbusch, N. Lamersdorf, A. C. Meyer, D. Murach, A. Parth, and Y.-J. Xu. 1998. The Solling roof project – site characteristics, experiments and results. Forest Ecology and Management 101:281-293.
Duquesnay, A., J. L. Dupouey, A. Clement, E. Ulrich, and F. LeTacon. 2000. Spatial and temporal variability of foliar mineral concentration in beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in northeastern France. Tree Physiology 20:13-22.
Elbert, W., M. R. Hoffmann, M. Krämer, G. Schmitt, and M. O. Andreae. 2000. Control of solute concentrations in cloud and fog water by liquid water content. Atmospheric Environment 34:1109-1122.
Garten-Jr., C. T., A. B. Schwab, and T. L. Shirshac. 1998. Foliar retention of 15N tracers: implications for net canopy exchange in low- and high-elevation forest ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management 103:211-216.
Heath, J. A., and B. J. Huebert. 1999. Cloudwater deposition as a source of fixed nitrogen in a Hawaiian montane forest. Biogeochemistry 44:119-134.
Jordan, C. F., F. B. Golley, J. B. Hall, and J. Hall. 1980. Nutrient scavenging of rainfall by the canopy of an Amazonian rain forest. Biotropica 12:61-66.
Kimmins, J. P. 1973. Some statistical aspects of sampling throughfall precipitation in nutrient cycling studies in British Columbian coastal forests. Ecology 54:1008-1019.
Lindberg, S. E., and C. T. Garten-Jr. 1988. Sources of sulphur in forest canopy throughfall. Nature 336:148-151.
Lovett, G. M. 1994. Atmospheric deposition of nutrients and pollutants in North America: an ecological perspective. Ecological Applications 4:629-650.
Nadkarni, N. M. 1981. Canopy roots: convergent evolution in rainforest nutrient cycles. Science 214:1023-1024.
Veneklaas, E. J. 1990. Nutrient fluxes in bulk precipitation and throughfall in two montane tropical rain forests, Colombia. Journal of Ecology 78:974-992.
Vitousek, P. M. 1982. Nutrient cycling and nutrient use efficiency. American Naturalist 119:553-572.

Plant Physiology

Aber, J. D., P. B. Reichand, and M. L. Goulden. 1996. Extrapolating leaf CO 2 exchange to the canopy: a generalized model forest photosynthesis compared with measurements by eddy correlation. Oecologia 106:257-265.
Andrade, J. L., F. C. Meinzer, G. Goldstein, N.M. Holbrook, J. Cavelier, P. Jackson, and K. Silvera. 1998. Regulation of water flux through trunks, branches, and leaves in trees of a lowland tropical forest. Oecologia 115:463-471.
Bassow, S., and F. A. Bazzaz. 1998. How environmental conditions affect canopy leaf-level photosynthesis in four deciduous tree species. Ecology 79:2660-2675.
Bauerle, W. L., T. M. Hinckley, J. Cermák, J. Kucera, and K. Bible. 1999. The canopy water relations of old-growth Douglas-fir trees. Trees 13:211-217.
Gauslaa, Y., and K. A. Solhaug. 1996. Differences in the susceptibility to light stress between epiphytic lichens of ancient and young boreal forest stands. Functional Ecology 10:344-354.
Gond, V., D. G. G. de Pury, F. Veroustraete, and R. Ceulemans. 1999. Seasonal variations in leaf area index, leaf chlorophyll, and water content; scaling-up to estimate fAPAR and carbon balance in a multilayer, multispecies temperate forest. Tree Physiology 19:673-679.
Griffin, K. L., D. T. Tissue, M.H. Turnbull, W. Schuster, and D. Whitehead. 2001. Leaf dark respiration as a function of canopy position in Nothofagus fusca trees grown at ambient and elevated CO 2 partial pressures for 5 years. Functional Ecology 15:497-505.
Hietz, P., and O. Briones. 1998. Correlation between water relations and within-canopy distribution of epiphytic ferns in a Mexican cloud forest. Oecologia 114:305-316.
Hirose, T., and F. A. Bazzaz. 1998. Trade-off between light- and nitrogen-use efficiency in canopy photosynthesis. Annals of Botany 82:195-202.
Hubbard, R. M., B. J. Bond, and M.G. Ryan. 1999. Evidence that hydraulic conductance limits photosynthesis in old Pinus ponderosa trees. Tree Physiology19:165-172.
Kull, O., and B. Kruijt. 1998. Leaf photosynthetic light response: a mechanistic model for scaling photosynthesis to leaves and canopies. Functional Ecology12:767-777.
Lewandowska, M., J. W. Hart, and P.G. Jarvis. 1977. Photosynthetic electron transport in shoots of Sitka spruce from different levels in a forest canopy. Physiologia Plantarum 41:124-128.
Lüttge, U., M. Haridasan, G.W. Fernandes, E.A. de Mattos, P. Trimborn, A.C. Franco, L.S. Caldas, and H. Ziegler. 1998. Photosynthesis of mistletoes in relation to their hosts at various sites in tropical Brazil. Trees 12:167-174.
Martin, T. A., T. M. Hinckley, F.C. Meinzer, and D.G. Sprugel. 1999. Boundary layer conductance, leaf temperature and transpiration of Abies amabilis branches. Tree Physiology 19:435-443.
Mulkey, S. S., K. Kitajima, and S.J. Wright. 1996. Plant physiological ecology of tropical forest canopies. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11:408-412.
Raulier, F., P. Y. Bernier, and C.H. Ung. 1999. Canopy photosynthesis of sugar maple (Acer saccharum): comparing big-leaf and multilayer extrapolations of leaf-level measurements. Tree Physiology 19:407-420.
Rennolls, K. 1994. Pipe model theory of stem-profile development. Forest Ecology and Management 69:41-55.
Schäfer, K. V. R., R. Oren, and J.D. Tenhunen. 2000. The effect of tree height on crown level stomatal conductance. Plant, Cell and Environment 23:365-375.
Wang, Y. P., and P. G. Jarvis. 1990. Influence of crown structural properties on PAR absorption, photosynthesis, and transpiration in sitka spruce: application of a model (MAESTRO). Tree Physiology 7:297-316.
Zimmermann, U., F. C. Meinzer, and F. W. Bentrup. 1995. How does water ascend in tall trees and other vascular plants? Annals of Botany 76:545-551.
Zotz, G., and K. Winter. 1994. Annual carbon balance and nitrogen-use efficiency in tropical C 3 and CAM epiphytes. New Phytologist 126:481-492.

Remote Sensing

Arseneault, D., N. Villeneuve, C. Boismenu, Y. LeBlanc, and J. Deshaye. 1997. Estimating lichen biomass and caribou grazing on the wintering grounds of northern Québec: an application of fire history and LANDSAT data. Journal of Applied Ecology 34:65-78.
Chen, J. M., J. Liu, J. Cihlar, and M. L. Goulden. 1999. Daily canopy photosynthesis model through temporal and spatial scaling for remote sensing applications. Ecological Modelling 124:99-119.
Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P., and V. Trichon. 1998. A modeling approach of PAR environment in a tropical rain forest in Sumatra: application to remote sensing. Ecological Modelling 108:237-264.
Jorge, L. A. B., and G. J. Garcia. 1997. A study of habitat fragmentation in southeastern Brazil using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). Forest Ecology and Management 98:35-47.
Lathrop-Jr., R., G. Pierce, and L. L. Pierce. 1991. Ground-based canopy transmittance and satellite remotely sensed measurements for estimation of coniferous forest canopy structure. Remote Sensing of Environment 36:179-188.
Lefsky, M. A., W. B. Cohen, S. A. Acker, G. G. Parker, T. A. Spies, and D. J. Harding. 1999. Lidar remote sensing of the canopy structure and biophysical properties of Douglas-fir western hemlock forests. Remote Sensing of Environment 70:339-361.
Lefsky, M. A., W. B. Cohen, G. G. Parker, and D. J. Harding. 2002. Lidar remote sensing for ecosystem studies. BioScience 52:19-30.
Liebhold, A. M., J. S. Elkinton, D. R. Miller, and Y. S. Wang. 1988. Estimating oak leaf area index and gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), defoliation using canopy photographs. Environmental Entomology 17:560-566.
Luvall, J. C., D. Lieberman, M. Lieberman, G. S. Hartshorn, and R. Peralta. 1990. Estimation of tropical forest canopy temperatures, thermal response numbers, and evapotranspiration using an aircraft-based thermal sensor. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 56:1393-1401.
Moeur, M. 1994. Automated video image analysis to quantify canopy gaps in old-growth forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology.
Nelson, R. F., W. Krabill, and G. Maclean. 1984. Determining forest canopy characteristics using airborne laser data. Remote Sensing of Environment 15:201-212.
Nichol, C. J., K. F. Huemmrich, T. A. Black, P. G. Jarvis, C. L. Walthall, J. C. Grace, and F. G. Hall. 2000. Remote sensing of photosynthetic-light-use efficiency of boreal forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 101:131-142.
Peterson, D. L., J. D. Aber, P. A. Matson, D. H. Card, N. Swanberg, C. A. Wessman, and M. Spanner. 1988. Remote sensing of forest canopy and leaf biochemical contents. Remote Sensing of Environment 24:85-108.
Royle, D. D., and R. G. Lathrop-Jr. 1997. Monitoring hemlock forest health in New Jersey using Landsat TM Data and change detection techniques. Forest Science43:327-335.
Saatchi, S., D. Agosti, K. Alger, J. Delabie, and J. Musinsky. 2001. Examining fragmentation and loss of primary forest in the southern Bahian Atlantic forest of Brazil with radar imagery. Conservation Biology 15:867-875.
Turner, D. P., W. B. Cohen, R. E. Kennedy, K. S. Fassnacht, and J. M. Briggs. 1999. Relationships between leaf area index and Landsat TM spectral vegetation indices across three temperate zone sites. Remote Sensing of Environment 70:52-68.
Wang, Y. Q., and D. K. Moskovits. 2001. Tracking fragmentation of natural communities and changes in land cover: Applications of Landsat data for conservation in an urban landscape (Chicago wilderness). Conservation Biology 15:835-843.
Waring, R. H., J. Way, E. R. Hunt-Jr., L. Morrissey, K. J. Ranson, J. F. Weishampel, R. Oren, and S. E. Franklin. 1995. Imaging radar for ecosystem studies. BioScience 45:715-723.
White, J. D., S. W. Running, R. Nemani, R. E. Keane, and K. C. Ryan. 1997. Measurement and remote sensing of LAI in Rocky Mountain montane ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27:1714-1727.

Research Equipment and Methodology

Adis, J. A., Y. Basset, A. Floren, P. M. Hammond, and K. E. Linsenmair. 1998. Canopy fogging of an overstory tree – recommendations for standardization. Ecotropica 4:93-97.
Basset, Y., V. Novotny, S. E. Miller, and R. Pyle. 2000. Quantifying biodiversity: experience with parataxonomists and digital photography in Papua New Guinea and Guyana. BioScience 50:899-908.
Claassen, H. C., and D. R. Halm. 1995. Performance characteristics of an automated wet deposition collector and possible effect on computed annual deposition. Atmospheric Environment 29:1021-1026.
Clark, F. G. 1961. A hemispherical forest photocanopymeter. Journal of Forestry 59:103-105.
Davis, W. E. 1939. Measurement of precipitation above forest canopies. Journal of Forestry 37:324-329.
Dial, R., and S. C. Tobin. 1994. Description of arborist methods for forest canopy access and movement. Selbyana 15:24-37.
Dufrêne, E., and N. Bréda. 1995. Estimation of deciduous forest leaf area index using direct and indirect methods. Oecologia 104:156-162.
Gottsberger, G., and J. Döring. 1995. ‘COPAS’, an innovative technology for long-term studies of tropical rain forest canopies. Phyton 35:165-173.
Hancock, N. H., and J. M. Crowther. 1979. A technique for the direct measurement of water storage on a forest canopy. Journal of Hydrology 41:105-122.
Humphrey, P. S., D. Bridge, and T. E. Lovejoy. 1968. A technique for mist-netting in the forest canopy. Bird-banding 39:43-50.
Looman, S. J., D. A. Boyce-Jr., C. M. White, D. L. Shirley, and W. J. Mader. 1985. Use of ultralight aircraft for raptor nest surveys. Wildlife Society Bulletin 13:539-543.
Martens, S. N., S. L. Ustin, and R. A. Rousseau. 1993. Estimation of tree canopy leaf area index by gap fraction analysis. Forest Ecology and Management 61:91-108.
McIntyre, B. M., M. A. Scholl, and J. T. Sigmon. 1990. A quantitative description of a deciduous forest canopy using a photographic technique. Forest Science36:381-393.
Moffett, M. W. 2000. What’s “Up”? A critical look at the basic terms of canopy biology. Biotropica 32:569-596.
Morell, V. 1994. Crane experiment finally perches in Washington State. Science 264:1842.
Parker, G. G., A. P. Smith, and K. P. Hogan. 1992. Access to the upper forest canopy with a large tower crane: sampling the treetops in three dimensions. BioScience 42:664-671.
Perry, D. R. 1978. A method of access into the crowns of emergent and canopy trees. Biotropica 10:155-157.
Wang, Y. S., D. R. Miller, J. M. Welles, and G. M. Heisler. 1992. Spatial variability of canopy foliage in an oak forest estimated with fisheye sensors. Forest Science38:854-865.
Whitacre, D. F. 1981. Additional techniques and safety hints for climbing tall trees, and some equipment and information sources. Biotropica 13:286-291.

Canopy Structure

Batista, J. L. F., and D. A. Maguire. 1998. Modeling the spatial structure of tropical forests. Forest Ecology and Management 110:293-314.
Brokaw, N. V. L., and J. S. Grear. 1991. Forest structure before and after Hurricane Hugo at three elevations in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Biotropica23:386-392.
Cermák, J., F. Riguzzi, and R. Ceulemans. 1998. Scaling up from the individual tree to the stand level in Scots pine. I. Needle distribution, overall crown and root geometry. Annales des Sciences Forestieres 55:63-88.
Chen, S. G., R. Ceulemans, and I. Impens. 1994. A fractal-based Populus canopy structure model for the calculation of light interception. Forest Ecology and Management 69: 97-110.
Dubrasich, M. E., D. W. Hann, and J.C. Tappeiner-II. 1997. Methods for evaluating crown area profiles of forest stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27: 385-392.
Ellsworth, D. S., and P. B. Reich. 1993. Canopy structure and vertical patterns of photosynthesis and related leaf traits in a deciduous forest. Oecologia 96:169-178.
Gratani, L. 1997. Canopy structure, vertical radiation profile and photosynthetic function in a Quercus ilex evergreen forest. Photosynthetica 33:139-149.
Herwitz, S. R., and R. E. Slye. 1995. Three-dimensional modeling of canopy tree interception of wind-driven rainfall. Journal of Hydrology 168:205-226.
Ishii, H., and N. McDowell. 2001. Age-related development of crown structure in coastal Douglas-fir trees. Forest Ecology and Management 5795:1-14.
Kinerson, R. S., K. O. Higginbotham, and R. C. Chapman. 1974. The dynamics of foliage distribution within a forest canopy. Journal of Applied Ecology 11:347-353.
Koike, F. 1986. Canopy dynamics estimated from shoot morphology in an evergreen broad-leaved forest. Oecologia 70:348-350.
Kuuluvainen, T., and T. Pukkala. 1989. Simulation of within-tree and between-tree shading of direct radiation in a forest canopy: effect of crown shape and sun elevation. Ecological Modeling 49:89-100.
Lovett, G. M., and W. A. Reiners. 1986. Canopy structure and cloud water deposition in subalpine coniferous forests. Tellus 38B:319-327.
Muul, I., and L. B. Liat. 1970. Vertical zonation in a tropical rain forest in Malaysia: method of study. Science 169:788-789.
Oker-Blom, P., and S. Kellomäki. 1982. Theoretical computations on the role of crown shape in the absorption of light by forest trees. Mathematical Biosciences59:291-311.
Parker, G. G., J. P. O’Neill, and D. Higman. 1989. Vertical profile and canopy organization in a mixed deciduous forest. Vegetatio 85:1-11.
Rich, P. M. 1990. Characterizing plant canopies with hemispherical photographs. Remote Sensing Reviews 5:13-29.
Smith, A. P. 1973. Stratification of temperate and tropical forests. American Naturalist 107:671-682.
Sumida, A. 1995. Three-dimensional structure of a mixed broad-leaved forest in Japan. Vegetatio 119:67-80.
Zeide, B., and P. Pfeifer. 1991. A method for estimation of fractal dimension of tree crowns. Forest Science 37:1253-1265.

Tree Architecture

Becker, P., F. C. Meinzer, and S. D. Wullschleger. 2000. Hydraulic limitation of tree height: a critique. Functional Ecology 14:4-11.
Benecke, U. 1979. Surface area of needles in Pinus radiata – variation with respect to age and crown position. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 9:267-271.
Hasenauer, H. 1997. Dimensional relationships of open-grown trees in Austria. Forest Ecology and Management 96:197-206.
King, D. A. and J. H. Maindonald. 1999. Tree architecture in relation to leaf dimensions and tree stature in temperate and tropical rain forests. Journal of Ecology87:1012-1024.
Küppers, M. 1989. Ecological significance of above-ground architectural patterns in woody plants: a question of cost-benefit relationships. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4:375-380.
Kuuluvainen, T. 1992. Tree architectures adapted to efficient light utilization: is there a basis for latitudinal gradients? Oikos 62:275-284.
Lawton, R. O. 1982. Wind stress and elfin stature in a montane rain forest tree: an adaptive explanation. American Journal of Botany 69:1224-1230.
Leverenz, J. W. 1995. Shade shoot structure of conifers and the photosynthetic response to light at two CO 2 partial pressures. Functional Ecology 9:413-421.
Raulier, F., and C.H. Ung. 1997. Influence of shading on the relationship between leaf area and crown surface area in sugar maple stands. Ecological Modeling104:51-69.
Rust, S., and R. F. Hüttl. 1999. The effect of shoot architecture on hydraulic conductance in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Trees 14:39-42.
Smith, W. K., and C. A. Brewer. 1994. The adaptive importance of shoot and crown architecture in conifer trees. American Naturalist 143:528-532.
Sterck, F. J., and F. Bongers. 1998. Ontogenetic changes in size, allometry, and mechanical design of tropical rain forest trees. American Journal of Botany 85:266-272.
Tomlinson, P. B. 1987. Architecture of tropical plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18:1-21.
Valverde, T., and J. Silvertown. 1997. Canopy closure rate and forest structure. Ecology 78:1555-1562.

Vascular Plants

Ackerman J. D., and A. M. Montalvo. 1990. Short- and long-term limitations to fruit production in a tropical orchid. Ecology 71: 263-272.
Andrade, J. L., F. C. Meinzer, G. Goldstein, N. M. Holbrook, J. Cavelier, P. Jackson, and K. Silvera. 1998. Regulation of water flux through trunks, branches, and leaves in trees of a lowland tropical forest. Oecologia 115:463-471.
Andrade, J. L., and P. S. Nobel. 1996. Habitat, CO 2 uptake and growth for the CAM epiphytic cactus Epiphyllum phyllanthus in a Panamanian tropical forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12:291-306.
Bassow, S., and F. A. Bazzaz. 1998. How environmental conditions affect canopy leaf-level photosynthesis in four deciduous tree species. Ecology 79:2660-2675.
Benzing DH. 1981. Bark surfaces and the origin and maintenance of diversity among angiosperm epiphytes: a hypothesis. Selbyana 5: 248-255.
Benzing, D. H. 1998. Vulnerabilities of tropical forests to climate change: the significance of resident epiphytes. Climate Change 39: 519-540.
Biebl R. 1964. Zum Wasserhaushalt von Tillandsia recurvata L. und Tillandsia usneoides L. auf Puerto Rico. Protoplasma 58:345-368.
Brooks, J. R., D. G. Sprugel, and T. M. Hinckley. 1996. The effects of light acclimation during and after foliage expansion on photosynthesis of Abies amabilisfoliage within the canopy. Oecologia 107:21-32.
Callaway R. M., K. O. Reinhart, and S.C. Pennings. 2001. Effects of epiphytic lichens on host preference of the vascular epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides. Oikos 94: 433-441.
Ellsworth, D. S. 1999. CO 2 enrichment in a maturing pine forest: are CO 2 exchange and water status in the canopy affected? Plant, Cell and Environment 22:461-472.
Forman R. T. T. 1975. Canopy lichens with blue-green algae: a nitrogen source in a Columbian rain forest. Ecology 56:1176-1184.
Freiberg, M. 1999. The vascular epiphytes on a Virola michelii tree in French Guiana. Ecotropica 5:75-81.
Gauslaa, Y., and K. A. Solhaug. 1996. Differences in the susceptibility to light stress between epiphytic lichens of ancient and young boreal forest stands. Functional Ecology 10:344-354.
Gentry A. H., and C. H. Dodson. 1987. Diversity and biogeography of neotropical vascular epiphytes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 74:205-233.
Green, T. G. A., A. C. Meyer, B. Buedel, H. Zellner, and O. L. Lange. 1995. Diel patterns of CO 2-exchange for six lichens from a temperate rain forest in New Zealand. Symbiosis 18:251-273.
Griffiths, H., and K. Maxwell. 1999. In memory of C. S. Pittendrigh: Does exposure in forest canopies relate to photoprotective strategies in epiphytic bromeliads? Functional Ecology 13:15-23.
Hietz, P. 1997. Population dynamics of epiphytes in a Mexican humid montane forest. Journal of Ecology 85:767-777.
Hietz-Seifert, U., P. Hietz, and S. Guevara. Epiphytic vegetation and diversity on remnant trees after forest clearance in southern Veracruz, Mexico. Biological Conservation 75:103-111.
Holbrook, N. M., and F. E. Putz. 1996. Water relations of epiphytic and terrestrially-rooted strangler figs in a Venezuelan palm savanna. Oecologia 106:424-431.
Ingram, S. W., and Nadkarni, N. M. 1993. Composition and distribution of epiphytic organic matter in a neotropical forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 25: 370-383.
Isagi, Y., K. Sugimura, A. Sumida, and H. Ito. 1997. How does masting happen and synchronize? Journal of Theoretical Biology 187:231-239.
Ishii, H., and E. D. Ford. 2001. The role of epicormic shoot production in maintaining foliage in old Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) trees. 79:251-264.
Johansson, D. R. 1974. Ecology of vascular epiphytes in West African rain forest. Acta Phytogeogr. Suecica 59:1-136.
Lüttge, U., M. Haridasan, G. W. Fernandes, E. A. de Mattos, P. Trimborn, A. C. Franco, L. S. Caldas, and H. Ziegler. 1998. Photosynthesis of mistletoes in relation to their hosts at various sites in tropical Brazil. Trees 12:167-174.
Madison, M. 1977. Vascular epiphytes. Their systematic occurrence and salient features. Selbyana 2:1-13.
Martin, C. E. 1994. The physiological ecology of Bromeliaceae. Botanical Review 60:1-82.
Medway, Lord. 1972. Phenology of a tropical rain forest in Malaya. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 4:117-146.
Nadkarni N. M. 1981. Canopy roots: convergent evolution in rainforest nutrient cycles. Science 214:1023-1024.
Pittendrigh, C. S. 1948. The Bromeliad-Anopheles-Malaria complex in Trinidad. I – The bromeliad flora. Evolution 2: 58-89.
Pócs, T. 1980. The epiphytic biomass and its effect on the water balance of two rain forest types in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa). Acta Botanica Academiae Scientiarium Hungaricae 26:143-167.
Richardson, B. A. 1999. The bromeliad microcosm and the assessment of faunal diversity in a neotropical forest. Biotropica 31:321-336.
Ruinen J. 1953. Epiphytosis. A second view on epiphytism. Annales Bogorienses 1:101-157.
Schimper, A. F. W. 1888. Die epiphytische Vegetation Amerikas. Jena: Gustav Fischer.
Tewari, M., N. Upretti, P. Pandey, and S. P. Singh. 1985. Epiphytic succession on tree trunks in a mixed oak-cedar forest, Kumaun Himalaya. Vegetatio 63:105-112.
Webb, W. L., and M. J. Ungs. 1993. Three dimensional distrubution of needle and stem surface area in a Douglas-fir. Tree Physiology 13:203-212.
Went F. W. 1940. Soziologie der Epiphyten eines tropischen Regenwaldes. Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg 50:1-98.
Zotz, G., and Andrade, J. L. 1998. Water relations of two co-occurring bromeliads. Journal of Plant Physiology 152:545-554.


Dial, R., and J. Roughgarden. 1995. Experimental removal of insectivores from rain forest canopy: direct and indirect effects. Ecology 76:1821-1834.
Emmons, L. H., and A. H. Gentry. 1983. Tropical forest structure and the distribution of gliding and prehensile tailed vertebrates. American Naturalist 121:513-524
Greenberg, R. 1981. The abundance and seasonality of forest canopy birds on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Biotropica 13:241-251.
Lopez, L.C.S., P.J.F. Pena-Rodrigues, and R.I. Rios. 1999. Frogs and snakes as phoretic dispersal agents of bromeliad ostracods (Limnocytheridae: Elpidium) and annelids (Naididae: Dero). Biotropica 31:705-708.
Malcolm, J. R. 1995. Forest structure and the diversity of neotropical small mammals. Pages 179-197 in M. D. Lowman and N. M. Nadkarni, editors. Forest Canopies. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
Nadkarni, N. M., and T. J. Matelson. 1989. Bird use of epiphyte resources in neotropical trees. Condor 91:891-907.
Reagan, D. P. 1992. Congeneric species distribution and abundance in a three-dimensional habitat: The rain forest anoles of Puerto Rico. Copeia 2:392-403.
Smith, A. P. 1984. Demographic consequences of reproduction, dispersal, and social interaction in a population of Leadbeater’s Possum. Pages 359-373 in A.P. Smith and I.D. Hume, editors. Possums and Gliders. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.